Four Australian cities have ranked among the 100 smartest in the world, according to a recent study.
Melbourne, Sydney, Perth and Adelaide were named in the Smart Cities Index, which looked at factors including transport, internet access, sustainability, governance and innovation. The study, by parking app company Easy Park, compared 500 cities with high and medium levels of development using data from local statistics, the United Nations, the Global Innovation Index and other sources relevant to each category.
Melbourne took the highest rank for an Australian city, scoring 10th overall, with Sydney coming in at number 12 on the list. Perth ranked 41st and Adelaide ranked 61.
Europe had five cities in the top 10, with Copenhagen taking out the number one spot, while Singapore came in second. The USA also featured in the top 10 with Boston and San Francisco coming in at fifth and sixth respectively.
Melbourne topped the charts for 4G connectivity and Sydney and Perth took out the second and third positions.
Perth and Adelaide did the best of the Aussie capitals for traffic flow - at numbers 33 and 34, while congested Melbourne and Sydney came in 61st and 80th respectively.
Urban planning was a strong area for Australian cities, with all making it into the top 20, while Helsinki in Finland ranked number one and Mexico City brought up the rear, ranking 100th.
All Australian cities were in the top 10 for citizen participation in elections, with Adelaide taking the number two spot behind Singapore.
Wi-Fi hotspots were found most frequently in bustling New York and London, whereas internet connection was fastest in San Francisco and, surprisingly, Bucharest in Romania.
Australians love their smartphones - but not as much as the United Arab Emirates. The study showed the four Aussie cities ranked between eighth and 11th for smartphone ownership, while Dubai and Abu Dhabi came sixth and seventh respectively.
Sustainability was an area for improvement for all four Australian cities - with each ranking in the 80s for clean energy production. Sydney, Perth and Adelaide came in at numbers 68, 69 and 70 for investment in sustainable building, while Melbourne did slightly better at number 45.
Adelaide came second to last for environmental protection, just before Los Angeles. Perth did the best of the Australian cities in this category, coming in at number 66.
Perth also beat out the other Aussie capitals for public transport satisfaction, coming in seventh, while Adelaide was among the worst at number 85. Singapore's efficient transport system was recognised with the top spot, with Taipai, Taiwan coming in second.